a)Introduction of relatively inexpensive measures to reduce these pollutants, for example, use of lower sulphur fuels, more coal cleaning, desulphurisation and blending of some fuel oils, or boiler design modifications to reduce nitrogen oxide formation.
b)Development of innovative regulatory schemes that can improve efficiency or flexibility of compliance while achieving regulatory goals.
c)Better enforcement of compliance with existing emission control regulations for both stationary sources and vehicles.
d)Increased efficiency of energy production and use, such as application of waste heat from electricity generation and steam production to industrial or residential/commercial use, improved building insulation, use of heat pumps, more efficient vehicle engines and design, better industrial processes, and other means.
e)Increased use of district heating systems with adequate pollution control or other less polluting energy systems, in urban areas where they are practicable and economically feasible, and can replace dispersed fossil fuel heating installations.
f)Regulations to ensure availability and use of clean fuels for combustion installations or against use of polluting fuels where emission controls are not usually economically feasible (e.g. small central heating boilers).
2. Pollution Control Technologies
a)Encouragement and incentives for research and development of efficient advanced technologies for pollution control before and during fossil fuel combustion and for control of pollutant emissions after combustion.
b)Encouragement and incentives for the development of new cost-effective fossil fuel combustion technologies and for the improvement of existing technologies, to achieve a more effective reduction of air pollutant emissions.
c)Support for the commercialisation and market penetration of new combustion technologies which are environmentally less polluting than existing ones.
d)Encouragement and incentives for the development and application of improved coal beneficiation and fuel oil refining technologies.
3. Large Stationary Installations
a)Implementation of emission standards by an effective programme of control measures for large stationary installations, consistent with the use of the best available and economically feasible technologies, and with the target, through national policies and programmes, of achieving the reduction of total national emissions required to reach environmentally acceptable air quality and deposition levels, and where appropriate with a transitional regime for existing plants.
b)Encouragement or incentives (e.g. tax, investment, loan or grant) for timely retirement or modernisation of older, more polluting installations, to the extent that this does not conflict with other economic policies.
4. Mobile Sources
a)Implementation as soon as practicable of internationally harmonized emission standards by category for major air pollutants from vehicles, implying for many countries substantive reduction of pollutant emissions by using the best available and economically feasible technology.
b)Encouragement and incentives for the development of less polluting and more efficient engines and vehicles.
c)Promotion of good vehicle maintenance.
d)Encouragement and incentives for the use of less polluting fuels for transportation (for example, liquified petroleum gas and compressed natural gas), where technologically and economically feasible.
e)Regulations or other incentives to ensure the availability and use of unleaded gasoline as soon as possible and to phase out leaded gasoline as a long-term goal.
f)Encouragement and incentives for the use of public transportation where appropriate.
g)Setting and enforcement of speed limits for driving, especially on highways, if such limits contribute to a relevant reduction of air pollution.
h)Traffic management in urban areas.
5. Information Needs
a)Improvement of the air pollutant emissions data base by adopting comparable techniques and methods of measuring emissions, and providing reliable emissions inventories.
b)Continuous monitoring of air pollutant emissions.
c)Continuing international research co-ordination and exchange of information.
d)Encouragement for the transfer between countries of available technologies and methods to reduce air pollution.
e)International co-operation on research and development to increase the effectiveness and to reduce the costs of controlling emissions, particularly for retrofitting existing installations.
Monitoring and reporting of the application and effectiveness of these guiding principles on a national basis.