GENERAL CONCLUSIONS RESULTING FROM THE STUDIES ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT FROM ENERGY USE IN THE HOUSEHOLD AND COMMERCIAL SECTORS
I. Compatibility of Demand Management of Energy with Environmental Objectives
1. When environmental benefits result from conservation policies these benefits should be stressed in support of these policies.
2. From the environmental point of view it is desirable that low polluting energy sources meet the energy needs of areas with high density of population and low environmental absorption. Energy supply policies should, therefore, give adequate attention to local environmental needs.
3. It will assist environmental planning if policy aims for reducing energy consumption are quantitatively expressed.
4. Policy formulation and implementation will be greatly facilitated if data on energy use and related environmental effects are collected in an internationally agreed format on a national and regional base for each country.
5. National and regional energy goals should be taken into account along with broader environmental and social objectives in conducting land use planning. Planning for all aspects of urban development should take account of both environmental factors and the need to avoid wasteful use of energy.
6. Energy research and development efforts are needed to develop environmentally sound use of plentiful energy sources and to reduce energy consumption, together with technological improvements in energy appliances. A major focus of research should be the prediction of the social, economic, energy and environmental consequences of energy conservation and supply measures in order to allow an enlightened choice among alternatives.
7. When the reduction in the growth rate of energy consumption requires energy saving investments then the calculation of the overall benefits and costs should include also the resulting environmental changes.
1. From the environmental point of view, it is desirable to ensure, as far as possible, that energy prices take account of the entire social cost, inter alia the environmental cost, of energy use. For this purpose, energy pricing policies, including energy tax measures, should take into account the different environmental costs associated with the production and transportation of energy, as well as other factors such as the welfare of the consumers.
2. Energy pricing policies should facilitate the use of low temperature heat where such heat is suitable to achieve the end purpose desired.
3. Utilities' marketing practices and rate structure should encourage efficient use and saving and discourage over-use of energy.
Retrofitting of existing buildings and the long term development of district heating are highly desirable from the environmental point of view and their financing should be facilitated. Financing arrangements, however, should be justified on the basis of long-term total net social benefits, including environmental benefits, arising from combined environmental and energy improvements.
1. Increased thermal and lighting efficiency in new commercial and public buildings and new residences should be introduced through changes in building codes and better integrated design.
2. Central and local governments should by their example contribute to the reduction in wasteful use of energy.
3. Energy efficiency labelling that indicates end use energy efficiency or net energy consumption should be introduced for all major consumer appliances.
4. Government regulations should be used to ensure efficient operation of household burners and boilers which produce significant local environmental benefits.
V. Information Programme
Comprehensive public education programmes, including school programmes and consultative facilities and training for personnel concerned, should be provided on the economic and environmental benefits of improved energy use and conservation; in particular, the efficient use of heat and hot water should be encouraged.
VI. Institutional Arrangements
1. National energy and environmental authorities should be encouraged to co-ordinate their activities as closely as possible.
2. One of the functions of such co-ordinating activities would be energy planning at the regional level promoting environmentally acceptable systems, e.g. district heating.